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The academy, as its name implied, was dedicated to the pursuit of a scientific or scholarly study of Judaism based on careful attention to historical sources and influences.
Nicholson New York: Holt, Strauss was hired by Julius Guttmann, director of the academy until it closed in Epicureanism is a form of ancient religious critique most frequently associated with the Roman philosopher-poet Lucretius, whose De Rerum Natura treated the gods as inventions of the human mind created to allay the fear of death.
It is a highly charged term of abuse. What was going on? And these are the people who do not merit the world to come: The ones who say there is no resurrection of the dead, and those who deny the Torah is from heaven, and Epicureans.
There was the closest affinity between Judaism and German culture, between the people of the book and the people of Beethoven, Goethe, and Schiller.
For Cohen, it was the peculiar destiny of Judaism to inhabit both these worlds, and there was no need to choose between them.
Spinoza stood condemned as a betrayer and falsifier of his own people. This for Cohen was an especially grievous sin, as it translated as a lack of fidelity.
Strauss, ed. Berlin: Schwetschke, hereinafter JS , vol. Hebraic Political Studies appear as based on a profound misunderstanding of the monotheistic idea.
Jewish monotheism, as Cohen understands it, is defined by the doctrine of care for the stranger. These laws formed the ethical basis of our later ideas about equality, justice, and tolerance.
For Cohen, however, the identity of God and nature is inseparable from the equation of might and right. A divinized world is a recipe for tyranny insofar as it equates the existing state of affairs with the purposes of God.
Carl Gebhardt Heidelberg: Carl Winter, , vol. This passage is also discussed in Steven S. When Hegel declared the identity of the actual and the rational, he in effect denied that there is any basis for morality other than power.
This axis of reason and history cut the ground out from any possible moral protest or revolt. The critical task of monotheism thus remains to underwrite an ethical culture based on norms of universal justice and humanity that are implicit but have not been fully realized.
Spinoza had interpreted Judaism as a purely national religion, a confessio publica, as it were. Hebraic Political Studies another term for socialism.
Even more profoundly, Cohen criticized the Zionists for their desire for happiness rather than the desire to be worthy of happiness, thus abandoning traditional notions of sin, guilt, and redemption.
Until the messianic idea has been realized, Jews have an ethical obligation to maintain their identity and even accept the burdens of martyrdom, if only because the very future of monotheism remains at stake.
In his last great work, Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism, he treats fidelity as rooted in the covenant between God and Noah, Abraham, and the people Israel.
Through this covenant God remembers his promises to mankind, and we remember our duties to God. Simon Kaplan Atlanta: Scholars Press, , pp.
For the messianic theme, see Poma, The Critical Philosophy, pp. It is the source of our collective memory and our sense of identity.
Thus, when Cohen attacked Spinoza for his lack of fidelity to Judaism, he meant not simply that Spinoza was an abettor of anti-Jewish sentiments although this would be bad enough , but that he had somehow misunderstood the very bond that makes social justice and moral progress possible.
Cohen failed to see the forces of persecution prevalent at the time of Spinoza. Cohen is criticized for attributing to Spinoza motives that are either conjectural or unnecessary to the understanding of the Tractatus.
But Strauss replies that Spinoza cannot be rightly charged with reacting to the ban, because his ideas were themselves the cause of the ban.
Cohen thus has the causal arrows moving in the wrong direction. The content of the Tractatus, if not the text, precedes the ban.
Hebraic Political Studies was Judaism, whereas it was in fact revealed religion as such. Nothing Spinoza says about Judaism does not apply equally to Christianity.
But most significantly, Cohen misses the point of the Tractatus. The critique of Scripture was secondary. The distinctive mission of Judaism is to create an ethical culture of reason that Cohen associates with socialism and the idea of almost infinite moral progress.
He credits the author of the Republic with discovering the idea of rational truth, that truth is a function of reason alone.
But Plato, in keeping with the aristocratic prejudices of the Greeks, regarded truth as a preserve of a minority, of the philosophers.
It is to the prophets, above all, that we owe the idea of an ethical culture in which all human beings can participate. The path to perpetual peace, Strauss warned, is paved by perpetual war.
He notes that Cohen opposes war but makes an exception for revolution, that is, wars of liberation. He mourns the death of revolutionaries but says nothing about their victims.
Accordingly, he had a greater faith in the power of modern Western culture to mold the fate of mankind than seems warranted now. Hebraic Political Studies last will and testament.
How, then, are we to understand Spinoza? Under these circumstances it seems to us an elementary imperative of Jewish self-respect that we Jews should at last again relinquish our claim on Spinoza.
By so doing, we by no means surrender him to our enemies. Strauss wonders why the same law that was said to lead to a weakening of political resolve could also be responsible for the strength to persevere even under the most adverse circumstances, such as the Inquisition.
It would seem that if the Jews wanted a state of their own, it would have to be at the expense of Judaism. Strauss distinguishes his position from the vilifiers Cohen and the celebrators.
It is the freedom of the philosopher. In an autobiographical preface written on the occasion of the English-language translation of Die Religionskritik Spinozas, Strauss reprised the controversies of his youth.
For a more complete treatment of this theme, see Steven B. Hebraic Political Studies autobiography of yourself where one adventure of the spirit and its mishaps follows upon another.
But then I saw that in one of his works published at a time of considerable restriction he was more outspoken than ever before.
I was baffled until I noted that this book was published when he was already very old, with one foot in the grave, and I learned that this condition is conducive to courage.
As for me I have had my first two heart attacks, Ergo. For you will hardly be able to have any great illusions that these pages might be as good as impenetrable to American readers.
In what way had Spinoza ceased to belong to the Jewish people, especially as he had never converted or formally renounced his heritage? However bad a Jew he may have been in all other respects, he thought of the liberation of the Jews in the only way in which he could think of it, given his philosophy.
Morgan and Peter Eli Gordon, eds. But Judaism mediated by Kantianism is no longer the Judaism that prevailed at the time of Spinoza; that is to say, it is no longer the body of laws and rituals that constitute Jewish Orthodoxy.
Strauss suggests that Spinoza actually had a deeper understanding of Judaism than did Cohen. This is confirmed by a story often told about Cohen at his expense.
The implication is that Cohen had broken with Orthodoxy every bit as decisively as Spinoza. The difference seems to be that Spinoza knew what he was doing.
Strauss wants to go Cohen one better. Micro Modal is made from the cellulose of Beech trees. It is odorless, breathable, and environmentally friendly.
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